Multi-level selection and butterfly

Natural Way to See Multi-Level Selection

Sep. 10, 2021 by

A review of Samir Okasha’s Evolution and the Levels of Selection (2006) Units and levels of selection have never been easy to grasp, and this is primarily not merely because of the statistical formalism. As with other issues associated with


Pluralism and Metaphysical Disorder

Sep. 19, 2020 by

A review of John Dupré’s The Disorder of Things (1993) Metaphysics-minded philosophers might ask John Dupré project in his 1993’s book, even from the title alone, with a question of the possibility of metaphysical disorders. This response is natural since


Are Ancestrality and Hyper-Chaos Still Tenable?

Sep. 5, 2020 by

In his 2006’s book, After Finitude, Quentin Meillassoux, a French Philosopher, proposed a position called Speculative Materialism (SM), a position that later is highly appreciated, despite the criticism, by many both continental and analytic thinkers, including Graham Harman (Harman, 2011a,

Photo by Michael Dziedzic on Unsplash laws of physics

The Facticity of Laws of Physics

Jun. 29, 2020 by

A review of Nancy Cartwright’s How the Laws of Physics Lie (1983) Laws of physics are typically assumed to be true and describe facts of reality. Moreover, it is usually assumed that a nomological generic-specific relation holds between a more

Natural Laws

The Range of Natural Laws

May. 11, 2020 by

A review of Nancy Cartwright’s The Dappled World: a Study of Boundaries of Science. For fundamentalists, arguably a position held by most naturalists, the world is nomologically tidy and structured. They might still disagree with each other about the nature

The Real

Manipulation and the Real

Apr. 27, 2018 by

A review of Ian Hacking’s Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. Ian Hacking, in one of his seminal works, Representing and Intervening (R&I) (1983),[1] provides a persuasive proposal regarding the definition of the real, especially

The matrix

Accepting the Matrix’s Scenario

Mar. 11, 2018 by

Let’s imagine the world presented in The Matrix movie is true, that the world we inhabit is no more than a simulation created by the new ruler of the world, smart machines. The illusion is created to keep us alive